Tuesday, December 23, 2008

Mark Twain's Rules Of Writing

Mark Twain's Rules for writing, based on his reading of James F. Cooper's DEERSLAYER:

"Cooper's art has some defects. In one place in 'Deerslayer,' and in the restricted space of two-thirds of a page, Cooper has scored 114 offences against literary art out of a possible 115. It breaks the record.

There are nineteen rules governing literary art in the domain of romantic fiction--some say twenty-two. In Deerslayer Cooper violated eighteen of them. These eighteen require:

1. That a tale shall accomplish something and arrive somewhere. But the Deerslayer tale accomplishes nothing and arrives in the air.

2. They require that the episodes of a tale shall be necessary parts of the tale, and shall help to develop it. But as the Deerslayer tale is not a tale, and accomplishes nothing and arrives nowhere, the episodes have no rightful place in the work, since there was nothing for them to develop.

3. They require that the personages in a tale shall be alive, except in the case of corpses, and that always the reader shall be able to tell the corpses from the others. But this detail has often been overlooked in the Deerslayer tale.

4. They require that the personages in a tale, both dead and alive, shall exhibit a sufficient excuse for being there. But this detail also has been overlooked in the Deerslayer tale.

5. They require that when the personages of a tale deal in conversation, the talk shall sound like human talk, and be talk such as human beings would be likely to talk in the given circumstances, and have a discoverable meaning, also a discoverable purpose, and a show of relevancy, and remain in the neighborhood of the subject in hand, and be interesting to the reader, and help out the tale, and stop when the people cannot think of anything more to say. But this requirement has been ignored from the beginning of the Deerslayer tale to the end of it.

6. They require that when the author describes the character of a personage in his tale, the conduct and conversation of that personage shall justify said description. But this law gets little or no attention in the Deerslayer tale, as Natty Bumppo's case will amply prove.

7. They require that when a personage talks like an illustrated, gilt-edged, tree-calf, hand-tooled, seven-dollar Friendship's Offering in the beginning of a paragraph, he shall not talk like a negro minstrel in the end of it. But this rule is flung down and danced upon in the Deerslayer tale.

8. They require that crass stupidities shall not be played upon the reader as "the craft of the woodsman, the delicate art of the forest," by either the author or the people in the tale. But this rule is persistently violated in the Deerslayer tale.

9. They require that the personages of a tale shall confine themselves to possibilities and let miracles alone; or, if they venture a miracle, the author must so plausibly set it forth as to make it look possible and reasonable. But these rules are not respected in the Deerslayer tale.

10. They require that the author shall make the reader feel a deep interest in the personages of his tale and in their fate; and that he shall make the reader love the good people in the tale and hate the bad ones. But the reader of the Deerslayer tale dislikes the good people in it, is indifferent to the others, and wishes they would all get drowned together.

11. They require that the characters in a tale shall be so clearly defined that the reader can tell beforehand what each will do in a given emergency. But in the Deerslayer tale this rule is vacated.

In addition to these large rules there are some little ones. These require that the author shall:

12. Say what he is proposing to say, not merely come near it.

13. Use the right word, not its second cousin.

14. Eschew surplusage.

15. Not omit necessary details.

16. Avoid slovenliness of form.

17. Use good grammar.

18. Employ a simple and straightforward style."

Most of those also work for screenwriting.

After turning in the first draft of the remake, I have been waiting for the call where they fire me... but instead have had positive responses. Hey, the thing needs work, I know this... but so far, I'm still the writer. I have traveled back to my home town for the holidays, so there may not be many blog entries for a while.

Happy Holidays to everyone!

Classes On CD On Sale!

- Bill

TODAY'S SCRIPT TIP: Over the next 2 weeks I'm running some older tips that need a rewrite... but haven't run in a couple of years. As usual, the new year will bring a bunch of new tips!
Yesterday’s Dinner: Pork Chops & Stuffing made by mom.

PS: My interview continues on the Writer's Bloc Show on Virtual TV Network, with part 4, about moving to LA and falling into a career writing cable movies:


PPS: My movies on TV...

Movies4Men2 (UK):
December 24 - 18:20 - Steel Sharks - When a United States submarine is seized by terrorists, a rescue attempt by Elite Navy Seals goes awry. The submarine crew wages a silent war beneath the waves in this tense undersea thriller.

You have been warned.

- Bill


Marty said...

Mark Twain has never impressed me too much (yes, I am a jealous fool) but - I really found these rules both funny and true. Enjoy your Holidays!

E.C. Henry said...

"We see farther because we stand on the shoulders of the giants who came before us."

Hard to believe modern story annaysis evolved from THAT, BUT given the tone of Twain's critism I could definately see him, if he was alive today, laying done some seething rants in the writers' blogosphere world.

1880 to 2008/9 transition? No problem, just be perpetually unhappy and bitch at everybody -- and you'll fit right in!

- E.C. Henry from Bonney Lake, WA

Stella Louise said...

Right on, Mark Twain! I read The Deerslayer in a college lit class and it boggled my mind at how bad it was.

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